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Maize chlorotic mottle virus

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Datasheet

Maize chlorotic mottle virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 May 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Maize chlorotic mottle virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Tombusviridae
  •         Genus: Machlomovirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleHybrid field maize with symptoms of MCMV.
Caption
CopyrightSteven A. Lommel
Hybrid field maize with symptoms of MCMV.Steven A. Lommel
TitleHybrid field maize exhibiting severe symptoms of MCMV.
Caption
CopyrightSteven A. Lommel
Hybrid field maize exhibiting severe symptoms of MCMV.Steven A. Lommel
Inoculation study on maize inbred line N28ht infected with MCMV and MDMV individually and together, resulting in corn lethal necrosis and death of the seedling.
TitleSymptoms on maize seedlings
CaptionInoculation study on maize inbred line N28ht infected with MCMV and MDMV individually and together, resulting in corn lethal necrosis and death of the seedling.
CopyrightSteven A. Lommel
Inoculation study on maize inbred line N28ht infected with MCMV and MDMV individually and together, resulting in corn lethal necrosis and death of the seedling.
Symptoms on maize seedlingsInoculation study on maize inbred line N28ht infected with MCMV and MDMV individually and together, resulting in corn lethal necrosis and death of the seedling.Steven A. Lommel
Negative stained electron micrograph of MCMV virions (30nm spheres) and MDMV virions (12 x 300nm flexous rods). The virus preparation was obtained from field corn in Kansas USA exhibiting the symptoms of corn lethal necrosis (CLN).
TitleSEM of MCMV virions
CaptionNegative stained electron micrograph of MCMV virions (30nm spheres) and MDMV virions (12 x 300nm flexous rods). The virus preparation was obtained from field corn in Kansas USA exhibiting the symptoms of corn lethal necrosis (CLN).
CopyrightSteven A. Lommel
Negative stained electron micrograph of MCMV virions (30nm spheres) and MDMV virions (12 x 300nm flexous rods). The virus preparation was obtained from field corn in Kansas USA exhibiting the symptoms of corn lethal necrosis (CLN).
SEM of MCMV virionsNegative stained electron micrograph of MCMV virions (30nm spheres) and MDMV virions (12 x 300nm flexous rods). The virus preparation was obtained from field corn in Kansas USA exhibiting the symptoms of corn lethal necrosis (CLN).Steven A. Lommel
Hybrid field corn exhibiting necrosis resulting from corn lethal necrosis, the synergistic interaction of a MDMV and MCMV co-infection.
TitleSymptoms on field maize.
CaptionHybrid field corn exhibiting necrosis resulting from corn lethal necrosis, the synergistic interaction of a MDMV and MCMV co-infection.
CopyrightSteven A. Lommel
Hybrid field corn exhibiting necrosis resulting from corn lethal necrosis, the synergistic interaction of a MDMV and MCMV co-infection.
Symptoms on field maize.Hybrid field corn exhibiting necrosis resulting from corn lethal necrosis, the synergistic interaction of a MDMV and MCMV co-infection.Steven A. Lommel

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Maize chlorotic mottle virus

Other Scientific Names

  • maize chlorotic mottle machlomovirus
  • maize mottle virus
  • Peru corn virus

English acronym

  • MCMV

EPPO code

  • MCMV00 (Maize chlorotic mottle machlomovirus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Tombusviridae
  •                 Genus: Machlomovirus
  •                     Species: Maize chlorotic mottle virus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) is the type and only species of the machlomovirus genus (Lommel, 1995). On the basis of significant amino acid sequence homology in the viral polymerase, the Machlomovirus genus has been placed within the family Tombusviridae. Recently, panicum mosaic virus, also known as Saint Augustine decline virus, has been sequenced and shown to be similar in genome organization and sequence homology to MCMV (Turina et al., 1998). It is likely that the two viruses will be related taxonomically.

The following serotypes of MCMV have been identified: Kansas serotypes 1 and 2 and the Peru serotype (Niblett and Claflin, 1978; Uyemoto et al., 1980). The serotypes are differentiated serologically by agar double-diffusion analysis. The Kansas serotypes 1 and 2 are prevalent in Kansas and have also been identified in Hawaii (Jiang et al., 1992). MCMV serotypes show no significant differences in symptoms or pathogenicity.

It is important to note that MCMV and maize mottle chlorotic stunt virus, which is endemic to tropical Africa, are two distinct and unrelated viruses (Thottappilly et al., 1993). The two taxonomically, morphologically and geographically distinct viruses should not be confused because of their similar names.

Description

Top of page The virus has spherical particles 30 nm in diameter when observed in a transmission electron microscope after negative staining (Castillo and Hebert, 1974; Gordon et al., 1984). The virions appear smooth and icosahedral in shape. From electron micrographic observations and the sequence similarity of the coat protein with that of bean southern mosaic sobemovirus, the virion is hypothesized to be a t=3 icosahedral virion formed by 180 copies of the 27 kDa capsid protein subunit (Lommel et al., 1991). The virion packages the 4,400 nucleotide single-stranded RNA genome (Lommel et al., 1991).

Distribution

Top of page MCMV has been reported in several countries throughout the Western Hemisphere including Argentina, Mexico, Peru and the USA. MCMV is probably also present but not yet reported in other Western Hemisphere countries. Its vector, Diabrotica spp., are strictly New World species; thus MCMV has the potential to be present and become established in any maize-growing region within the Western Hemisphere. The recent report from Hawaii that MCMV can be transmitted by thrips (Frankliniella williamsii), significantly increases the potential range of the virus.

In Nebraska and Kansas (USA), MCMV was initially restricted to the Republican River valley which borders these two states (Uyemoto, 1983). In Kauai, Hawaii the virus is present in winter nursery maize breeding plots (Jiang et al., 1992). MCMV is endemic in the Lima, Huaral, Chancay, Lurin and Canete valleys in the Department of Lima, Peru (Castillo, 1976).

It is important to note that MCMV and maize mottle chlorotic stunt virus, which is endemic to tropical Africa, are two distinct and unrelated viruses (Thottappilly et al., 1993). The two taxonomically, morphologically and geographically distinct viruses should not be confused because of their similar names.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2014
-HebeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
-SichuanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
-YunnanPresentXie et al., 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2014; Wang et al., 2014
TaiwanPresentDeng et al., 2014
ThailandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014

Africa

CongoPresentLukanda et al., 2014
EthiopiaPresentMahuku et al., 2015
KenyaRestricted distributionWangai et al., 2012; CABI/EPPO, 2014
MozambiquePresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
RwandaPresentAdams et al., 2014
TanzaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
UgandaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014

North America

MexicoPresentGordon et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2014
USARestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2014
-HawaiiRestricted distributionJiang et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2014
-KansasWidespreadNiblett and Claflin, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2014
-NebraskaWidespreadDoupnik et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2014
-TexasPresent, few occurrencesKessler, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaRestricted distributionTeyssandier et al., 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2014
BrazilPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
EcuadorPresentQuito-Avila et al., 2016
PeruPresentCastillo and Hebert, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2014

Europe

SpainPresentAchon et al., 2017

Risk of Introduction

Top of page RISK CRITERIA CATEGORY

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE Low
DISTRIBUTION Argentina, Peru, Mexico, USA
SEEDBORNE INCIDENCE Low
SEED TRANSMITTED Yes
SEED TREATMENT No

OVERALL RISK Moderate


Notes on phytosanitary risk

All grass clones in the Poaceae are quarantined and tested for viruses including MCMV prior to release in the USA. New Zealand, Hungary, Bulgaria, Morocco, Indonesia and Poland include MCMV on lists of harmful organisms that are prohibited.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page Maize is the only known natural host of MCMV (Bockelman et al., 1982), but maize genotypes infected range from highly resistant to extremely susceptible. The experimental host range of the virus is restricted to the Poaceae (Castillo and Hebert, 1974; Bockelman et al., 1982). The virus does not cause symptoms and probably does not infect dicotyledonous species (Castillo and Hebert, 1974; Niblett and Claflin, 1978).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page For field-grown maize infected with MCMV, growth is stunted with the formation of short internodes. Leaf symptoms begin as chlorotic stripes running parallel to the veins which later coalesce to produce elongated chlorotic blotches, finally resulting in leaf necrosis and epinasty. In severe infections of particularly susceptible lines, leaf necrosis can result in plant death (Castillo and Hebert, 1974). Male inflorescences have hard panicles, short rachis and few spikelets. Fewer ears and ear malformation can also occur in severe infections (Castillo, 1976). A general observation is that the younger the maize plant is when MCMV infects, the more severe the stunting and symptoms become (Lenardon et al., 1987).

MCMV has been detected by serological methods in all parts of an infected maize plant, including leaf, stem, roots, cob, husk, silk, kernel, seed, anther and sheath tissues (Jiang et al., 1992).

When MCMV co-infects maize with any potyvirus, a synergistic interaction occurs, causing a severe disease called corn lethal necrosis (CLN) (Niblett and Claflin, 1978). In maize the most common potyviruses found in co-infections with MCMV are maize dwarf mosaic potyvirus (MDMV) A and/or B. The symptoms of corn lethal necrosis are much more severe than the additive symptoms of either MCMV or the potyvirus virus alone. The virus complex causes a severe systemic necrosis which culminates in death of the plant (Niblett and Claflin, 1978; Uyemoto et al., 1980; Uyemoto et al., 1981). If maize plants exhibit a rapid onset of necrosis followed by rapid plant death, it is likely that they are infected with both MCMV and a maize-infecting potyvirus. The titre of MCMV in plants infected with both MCMV and a potyvirus is more than five times higher than in plants infected with MCMV alone (Goldberg and Brakke, 1987). From an epidemiological perspective, corn lethal necrosis can occur wherever both MCMV and a maize infecting potyvirus are endemic.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Transmission

The virus is easily transmitted mechanically in the laboratory. Extensive research has been conducted on how MCMV is transmitted and maintained in nature, particularly during maize-free periods. MCMV can be transmitted by six species of beetle, belonging to the family Chrysomelidae: the cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus), the corn flea beetle (Systena frontalis) and Chaetocnema pulicaria, the southern corn rootworm (Diabrotica undecimpunctata), the northern corn rootworm (D. longicornis) and the western corn rootworm (D. virgifera) (Nault et al., 1978; Reyes and Castillo, 1988; Jensen, 1985). In Hawaii, MCMV has been shown to be transmitted by the thrips Frankliniella williamsi (Jiang et al., 1992). Insects that have been shown not to transmit MCMV include several aphid species, two leafhoppers, a planthopper, a whitefly, a scarab beetle and a noctuid larva.

Epidemiology

In Kansas and Nebraska (USA), MCMV infections re-occur in the same locations within maize fields year after year. This observation has led to the hypothesis that the virus is maintained in the soil from season to season (Uyemoto, 1983). There are conflicting reports as to whether MCMV can survive in maize residues during maize-free periods (Uyemoto, 1983; Montenegro and Castillo, 1996). The virus has been shown to over-winter in ploughed corn stubble. It is also hypothesized that the larval stages of the corn rootworms, that have been shown to successfully transmit the virus, are capable of harbouring infectious virus during the host-free periods (Uyemoto, 1983).

It is now thought that MCMV can be introduced into geographically distinct maize-growing regions by the introduction of an infected plant or by seed transmission. Once present, the virus can then persist in the region by infection in maize or by over-wintering in the larval stages of the vector when the maize host is not present.

Seedborne Aspects

Top of page Incidence

In a study that was performed to explain a sudden outbreak of MCMV in Hawaii, MCMV was identified by ELISA in 17 seedlings grown out in a greenhouse from 42,000 maize seeds harvested from symptomatic plants in commercial winter nurseries in Hawaii (Jensen et al., 1991). Seedborne infection was later confirmed in Hawaii-produced maize seed (Jiang et al., 1992) and in sweetcorn seed by (Delgadillo-Sanchez et al., 1994). In earlier studies where seed transmission was not observed, only 800-2153 seedlings were assayed (Castillo and Hebert, 1974; Bockelman et al., 1982). It is generally concluded that the sample size in the studies where seed transmission was not observed was too small to detect the low level of MCMV seed transmission.

Pathogen Transmission

Seed

Bockelman et al. (1982) were unable to detect seed transmission of MCMV in several maize inbred and hybrid lines. Nor was seed transmission observed in a hybrid maize line by Castillo and Hebert (1974). However, Jensen et al. (1991) found 17 MCMV infected seedlings grown out in a greenhouse from 42,000 maize seeds and Delgadillo-Sanchez et al. (1994) detected the virus in two of 12,910 sweetcorn plants and one of 12,020 white-grained dent maize plants after seed transmission. These studies clearly established that MCMV is seed transmitted at a low level.

Other sources

Various insects have been identified as potential above-ground arthropod vectors of MCMV including six arthropod species found in MCMV-infected maize fields in Hawaii (Peregrinus maidis, Sardia pluto, Empoasca solana, Adoretus sinicus, Tetranychus sp. and Frankliniella williamsi) that gave positive test results for MCMV by ELISA, but only F. williamsi was able to transmit MCMV to healthy maize plants. This is the first evidence of MCMV transmission by thrips. A total of 15 other plant species tested by ELISA were negative for MCMV, except for one sample of the grass Trichachne insularis and one sample of Melia azedarach (Jiang et al., 1992). Other studies have shown the pathogen to be transmitted by the cereal leaf beetle, the corn flea beetle and the corn rootworm (Jensen, 1985; Nault et al., 1978).

Seed Health Tests

Serology

No seed health tests have been published. However, a diagnostic kit for detecting MCMV in seeds has been produced for proprietary use (Townsend and Greif, 1990). The pathogen can also be detected in plant tissues by ELISA (Uyemoto, 1980).

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Frankliniella williamsiInsect

Impact

Top of page In Peru, losses in floury and sweet maize varieties due to MCMV have been reported to average between 10 and 15%. In experimental plots, inoculated plant yields were reduced by up to 59% (Castillo, 1976). In Kansas crop losses due to corn lethal necrosis (caused by MCMV and any potyvirus) have been estimated to be between 50 (Uyemoto et al., 1980) and 90% (Niblett and Claflin, 1978) depending on the variety of maize and the year.

Diagnosis

Top of page The most reliable and sensitive methods to detect and identify MCMV are based on serology (Uyemoto, 1980; Townsend and Greif, 1990). MCMV is a moderate to strong immunogen, consequently there are a number of excellent polyclonal and even monoclonal antibodies available (Niblett and Claflin, 1978; Castillo et al., 1991). Agar double-diffusion (Bockelman et al., 1982), serological specific electron microscopy (Niblett and Claflin, 1978), Western blots, dot-blots and several formats of ELISA (Uyemoto, 1980) are effective in identifying MCMV. MCMV should be detectable in seed by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method using viral specific oligonucleotide primers based on the nucleotide sequence of the virus.

MCMV is readily mechanically transmissible to maize. Different maize genotypes respond differently to MCMV infection, and can range from resistant to susceptible. The inbred corn line N28ht is quite susceptible and produces conspicuous symptoms of MCMV (Bockelman et al., 1982). MCMV can easily be distinguished from most other common maize viruses occurring in the Western Hemisphere (maize chlorotic dwarf virus, maize mosaic virus, maize rayado fino virus, maize stripe virus and maize white line mosaic virus) because it is mechanically transmissible (Gordon et al., 1984). MCMV can be readily distinguished from the two other mechanically transmissible plant viruses that commonly infect maize: maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and wheat streak mosaic virus. Sorghum bicolor cv. Asgrow Bugoff is immune to MCMV and therefore can be used to distinguish between MCMV and MDMV. MDMV causes systemic mottling and reddening of the leaves (Uyemoto et al., 1980). Wheat can be used to distinguish between MCMV and wheat streak mosaic virus.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page In the early stages of infection, symptoms of MCMV can be confused with those of maize dwarf mosaic potyvirus.

MCMV is not serologically related to a number of similar shaped viruses or other viruses of maize and corn (Castillo and Hebert, 1974). On the basis of genome organisation and amino acid sequence homology, MCMV is most closely related to panicum mosaic virus (Turina et al., 1997).

Prevention and Control

Top of page The most effective control for MCMV will be the deployment of resistant varieties. A number of sources of resistance to MCMV have been identified and are being incorporated into commercial maize varieties throughout the Western Hemisphere (Nault and Findley, 1981; Nault et al., 1982). Alternatively, crop rotation with sorghum or another non-maize crop has been shown to reduce the incidence of MCMV the following year (Phillips et al., 1982; Uyemoto, 1983). Soil fumigation apparently does not control MCMV.

Corn lethal necrosis, the disease caused by the synergistic interaction between MCMV and a maize-infecting potyvirus, can be controlled by effectively controlling and eliminating the infection of either component virus. Corn lethal necrosis has been controlled experimentally using transgenic resistance derived from a pathogen (Murry et al., 1993). Transgenic maize plants expressing the MDMV strain B capsid protein did not lead to corn lethal necrosis when inoculated with MDMV and MCMV.

References

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Achon MA, Serrano L, Clemente-Orta G, Sossai S, 2017. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus on a perennial host, Sorghum halepense, and Maize in Spain. Plant Disease, 101(2):393. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Adams, I. P., Harju, V. A., Hodges, T., Hany, U., Skelton, A., Rai, S., Deka, M. K., Smith, J., Fox, A., Uzayisenga, B., Ngaboyisonga, C., Uwumukiza, B., Rutikanga, A., Rutherford, M., Ricthis, B., Phiri, N., Boonham, N., 2014. First report of maize lethal necrosis disease in Rwanda. New Disease Reports, 29, 22. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=029022 doi: 10.5197/j.2044-0588.2014.029.022

Bockelman DL, Claflin LE, Uyemoto JK, 1982. Host range and seed-transmission studies of maize chlorotic mottle virus in grasses and corn. Plant Disease, 66(3):216-218

CABI/EPPO, 2004. Maize chlorotic mottle virus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 912. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

CABI/EPPO, 2014. Maize chlorotic mottle virus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.April. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 912 (Edition 2)

Castillo J, Hebert TT, 1974. A new virus disease of maize in Peru. Fitopatologia, 9(2):79-84

Castillo J, Stace-Smith R, Wieczoreck A, 1991. Production of monoclonal antibodies against maize chlorotic mottle virus. Fitopatologi^acute~a, 26(1):1-5; 16 ref

Castillo JC, 1976. Maize virus and virus-like diseases in Peru. In: Williams LE, Gordon DT, Nault LR, eds. Proceedings of the International Maize Virus Disease Colloquium and Workshop, 16-19 August 1976, The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio: Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 40-44

Delgadillo-Sanchez F, Pons-Hernandez JL, Torreon-Ibarra AD, 1994. Seed transmission of maize chlorotic mottle virus. Revista Mexican de Fitopatologia, 12:7-10

Deng TC, Chou CM, Chen CT, Tsai CH, Lin FC, 2014. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus on sweet corn in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 98(12):1748. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Doupnik B, Lane L, Wysong DS, 1982. Occurrence, spread, and evaluations of dent corn hybrids and inbred lines for reaction to corn lethal necrosis in Nebraska. (Abstract) Phytopathology, 72:939

Goldberg KB, Brakke MK, 1987. Concentration of maize chlorotic mottle virus increased in mixed infections with maize dwarf mosaic virus, strain B. Phytopathology, 77(2):162-167

Gordon DT, Bradfute OE, Gingery RE, Nault LR, Uyemoto JK, 1984. Maize chlorotic mottle virus. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 284, 4 pp. Wellesbourne, UK: Association of Applied Biology

Jensen SG, 1985. Laboratory transmission of maize chlorotic mottle virus by three species of corn rootworms. Plant Disease, 69(10):864-868

Jensen SG, Wysong DS, Ball EM, Higley PM, 1991. Seed transmission of maize chlorotic mottle virus. Plant Disease, 75(5):497-498

Jiang XQ, Meinke LJ, Wright RJ, Wilkinson DR, Campbell JE, 1992. Maize chlorotic mottle virus in Hawaiian-grown maize: vector relations, host range and associated viruses. Crop Protection, 11(3):248-254

Kessler K, 1979. New corn disease threatens Great Plains. Furrow. May/June, pp. 20-21

Lenardon SL, March GJ, Marinelli A, Joekes S, 1985. Effects of artificial inoculations of maize chlorotic mottle virus on different phenological phases of maize. IDIA, No. 441-444:41-45

Lommel SA, 1995. Genus Machlomovirus. In: Murphy FA, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Ghabrial SA, Jarvis AW, Martelli GP, Mayo MA, Summers MD, eds. Virus Taxonomy - Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Archives of Virology, Supplement 10:404-406

Lommel SA, Kendall TL, Siu NF, Nutter RC, 1991. Characterization of maize chlorotic mottle virus. Phytopathology, 81(8):819-823

Lukanda M, Owati A, Ogunsanya P, Valimunzigha K, Katsongo K, Ndemere H, Kumar PL, 2014. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus infecting maize in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Plant Disease, 98(10):1448-1449. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Mahuku, G., Wangai, A., Sadessa, K., Teklewold, A., Wegary, D., Ayalneh, D., Adams, I., Smith, J., Bottomley, E., Bryce, S., Braidwood, L., Feyissa, B., Regassa, B., Wanjala, B., Kimunye, J. N., Mugambi, C., Monjero, K., Prasanna, B. M., 2015. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and maize lethal necrosis on maize in Ethiopia. Plant Disease, 99(12), 1870. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-04-15-0373-PDN

Montenegro MT, Castillo LJ, 1996. Survival of maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) in crop residues and seeds. Fitopatologi^acute~a, 31(2):107-113; 26 ref

Murry LE, Elliott LG, Capitant SA, West JA, Hanson KK, Scarafia L, Johnston S, DeLuca-Flaherty C, Nichols S, Cunanan D, Dietrich PS, Mettler IJ, Dewald S, Warnick DA, Rhodes C, Sinibaldi RM, Brunke KJ, 1993. Transgenic corn plants expressing MDMV strain B coat protein are resistant to mixed infections of maize dwarf mosaic virus and maize chlorotic mottle virus. Bio/Technology, 11(13):1559-1564

Nault LR, Findley WR, 1981. Zea diploperennis primitive relative offers new traits for corn improvement. Ohio Report on Research and Development in Agriculture, Home Economics, and Natural Resources, 66:90-92

Nault LR, Gordon DT, Damsteegt VD, Iltis HH, 1982. Response of annual and perennial teosintes (Zea) to six maize viruses. Plant Disease, 66(1):61-62

Nault LR, Styer WE, Coffey ME, Gordon DT, Negi LS, Niblett CL, 1978. Transmission of maize chlorotic mottle virus by chrysomelid beetles. Phytopathology, 68(7):1071-1074

Niblett CL, Claflin LE, 1978. Corn lethal necrosis - a new virus disease of corn in Kansas. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(1):15-19

Phillips NJ, Uyemoto JK, Wilson DL, 1982. Maize chlorotic mottle virus and crop rotation: effect of sorghum on virus incidence. Plant Disease, 66(5):376-379

Quito-Avila, D. F., Alvarez, R. A., Mendoza, A. A., 2016. Occurrence of maize lethal necrosis in Ecuador: a disease without boundaries?. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 146(3), 705-710. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658 doi: 10.1007/s10658-016-0943-5

Reyes H E, Castillo L J, 1988. Transmission of maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) by two species of Diabrotica, family Chrysomelidae. Fitopatologia, 23(2):65-73

Tewabech Tilahun, Getachew Ayana, Fekede Abebe, Dagne Wegary, 2002. Maize pathology research in Ethiopia: a review. Enhancing the contribution of maize to food security in Ethiopia. Proceedings of the Second National Maize Workshop of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 12-16 November 2001, 97-105; 22 ref

Teyssandier EE, Nome SF, Dal Bo E, 1983. Maize virus diseases in Argentina. In: Gordon DT, Knoke JK, Nault LR, Ritter RM, eds. Proceedings of the International Maize Virus Disease Colloquium and Workshop, 2-6 August 1982, The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio: Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 93-99

Thottappilly G, Bosque-Perez NA, Rossel HW, 1993. Viruses and virus diseases of maize in tropical Africa. Plant Pathology, 42(4):494-509

Townsend R, Greif KA, 1990. Application of diagnostics to the development of crops. Napjaink Biotechnologiaja, No. 25:99-108

Turina M, Maruoka M, Monis J, Jackson AO, Scholthof KBG, 1998. Nucleotide sequence and infectivity of a full-length cDNA clone of panicum mosaic virus. Virology (New York), 241(1):141-155; 67 ref

Uyemoto JK, 1980. Detection of maize chlorotic mottle virus serotypes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Phytopathology, 70(4):290-292

Uyemoto JK, 1983. Biology and control of maize chlorotic mottle virus. Plant Disease, 67(1):7-10

Uyemoto JK, Bockelman DL, Claflin LE, 1980. Severe outbreak of corn lethal necrosis disease in Kansas. Plant Disease (formerly Plant Disease Reporter), 64(1):99-100

Uyemoto JK, Claflin LE, Wilson DL, Raney RJ, 1981. Maize chlorotic mottle and maize dwarf mosaic viruses; effect of single and double inoculations on symptomatology and yield. Plant Disease, 65(1):39-41

Wang Q, Zhou XP, Wu JX, 2014. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus infecting sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum). Plant Disease, 98(4):572-573. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Wangai AW, Redinbaugh MG, Kinyua ZM, Miano DW, Leley PK, Kasina M, Mahuku G, Scheets K, Jeffers D, 2012. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and maize lethal necrosis in Kenya. Plant Disease, 96(10):1582-1583. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Xie Li, Zhang JingZe, Wang Qiang, Meng ChunMei, Hong Jian, Zhou XuePing, 2011. Characterization of Maize chlorotic mottle Virus associated with maize lethal necrosis disease in China. Journal of Phytopathology, 159(3):191-193. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Contributors

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02/11/12 Review by:

Kay Scheets, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.

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